See W. H. Rayner and M. O. Schmidt, Fundamentals of Surveying (5th ed. 1969); R. F. Spier, Surveying and Mapping (1970); J. Anderson and E. Mikhail, Introduction to Surveying (1989); F. Bell, Surveying and Setting Out Procedures (1991).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.