threonine (thrēˈənēn) [key], organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l -stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of several essential amino acids needed in the diet; human beings cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites. Young adults need about 14 mg of this amino acid per day per kilogram (6 mg per lb) of body weight. Although threonine participates in many reactions in bacteria, including the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 and isoleucine, its metabolic role in higher animals, including man, remains obscure. It is known only as a constituent of proteins, and even in that form it is relatively unreactive. In spite of the fact that its side chain has a hydroxyl group similar to that of serine, there is no indication that it participates in the catalytic functions of any enzyme. Threonine was isolated from the protein fibrin in 1935 and synthesized in the same year.
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