# vector

## Representation and Reference Systems

The simplest representation of a vector is as an arrow connecting two points. Thus, *AB* art/vector-ab.gif is used to designate the vector represented by an arrow from point *A* to point *B,* while *BA* art/vector-ba.gif designates a vector of equal magnitude in the opposite direction, from *B* to *A.* In order to compare vectors and to operate on them mathematically, however, it is necessary to have some reference system that determines scale and direction. Cartesian coordinates are often used for this purpose. In the plane, two axes and unit lengths along each axis serve to determine magnitude and direction throughout the plane. For example, if the point *A* mentioned above has coordinates (2,3) and the point *B* coordinates (5,7), the size and position of the vector are thus determined. The size of the vector in the *x* -direction is found by projecting the vector onto the *x* -axis, i.e., by dropping perpendicular line segments to the *x* -axis. The length of this projection is simply the difference between the *x* -coordinates of the two points *A* and *B,* or 5 - 2 = 3. This is called the *x* -component of the vector. Similarly, the *y* -component of the vector is found to be 7 - 3 = 4. A vector is frequently expressed by giving its components with respect to the coordinate axes; thus, our vector becomes [3,4].;g666;none;1;g666;;;block;;;;no;1;4224n;178277n;;;;;vector-ab666;;;left;stack;;;;;;;;left;stack;2745n;;;The components of the vector *AB* art/vector-ab.gif are given by its projections on each of the coordinate axes.CE5

Knowledge of the components of a vector enables one to compute its magnitude—in this case, 5, from the Pythagorean theorem [(3^{2} + 42)1/2 = 5)]—and its direction from trigonometry, once the lengths of the sides of the right triangle formed by the vector and its components are known. (Trigonometry can also be used to find the component of the vector as projected in some direction other than the *x* -axis or *y* -axis.) Since the vector points from *A* to *B,* both its components are positive; if it pointed from *B* to *A,* its components would be [ - 3, - 4] but its magnitude and orientation would be the same.

It is obvious that an infinite number of vectors can have the same components [3,4], since there are an infinite number of pairs of points in the plane with *x* - and *y* -coordinates whose respective differences are 3 and 4. All these vectors have the same magnitude and direction, being parallel to one another, and are considered equal. Thus, any vector with components *a* and *b* can be considered as equal to the vector [ *a,* *b* ] directed from the origin (0,0) to the point ( *a,* *b* ). The concept of a vector can be extended to three or more dimensions.

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*The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia,* 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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