See T. Veblen, Higher Learning in America (1918, repr. 1965); D. G. Tewksbury, The Founding of American Colleges and Universities before the Civil War (1932, repr. 1969); H. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (3 vol., 1936; repr. 1987); L. R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (1965); M. Beloff, The Plateglass Universities (1975); F. K. Ringer, Education and Society in Modern Europe (1979); A. W. Chickering et al., The Modern American College (1981); B. R. Clark, The Higher Education System (1983); C. Kerr, The Uses of the University (3d ed. 1983); W. Rudy, The Universities of Europe (1984); T. Bender, ed., The University and the City (1989); S. Brint and J. Karabel, The Diverted Dream (1989); H. Rosovsky, The University (1991); J. Pelikan, The Idea of the University—A Reexamination (1992); D. Kennedy, Academic Duty (1998); M. C. Nussbaum, Cultivating Humanity (1998); J. V. Lombardi, How Universities Work (2013). See also A. S. Knowles, ed., The International Encyclopedia of Higher Education (10 vol., 1977).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.