Golden Dawn, Hermetic Order of the, occult-oriented fraternal organization established by the Freemasons in England (1888), led by S. L. MacGregor Mathers (1854–1917). The order's rituals were derived from writings by Fred Hockley, and members had to demonstrate competence in mysticism. The group influenced authors William B. Yeats and Algernon Blackwood. The most famous member, Aleister Crowley, joined in 1898 and founded the rival Argenteum Astrum (1905) after his expulsion in 1900.
See E. Howe, The Magicians of the Golden Dawn (1985); I. Regardie, The Golden Dawn (1986).