Indo-European Family of Languages, The

The Indo-European Family of Languages

SubfamilyGroupSubgroupLanguages and Principal Dialects
AnatolianAnatolLan   Hieroglypic Hittite* , Hittite (Kanesian) * , Luwian * , Lycian * , Lydian * , Palaic *
BalticBalticla   LatvianLatvian (Lettish), LithuanianLithuanian , Old Prussian*
CelticCelticla 3Brythonic Breton, Cornish, Welsh
Continental  Gaulish*
Goidelic or Gaelic  IrishIrishlan (Irish Gaelic), Manx* , Scottish Gaelic
GermanicGermancLan 4East Germanic  Burgundian* , GothicGothicla * , Vandalic *
North Germanic  Old Norse* (see NorseNorse ), DanishDanishla , Faeroese, IcelandicIcelndiLan , NorwegianNorwlang , SwedishSwedlang
West Germanic (see Grimm's law) 2High German GermanGermanla , YiddishYiddishl
Low German AfrikaansAfrikaan , DutchDutchlan , EnglishEnglsh-lan , FlemishFlemishLan , FrisianFrisianl , Plattdeutsch (see German languageGermanla )
GreekGreeklan   Aeolic* , Arcadian * , Attic * , Byzantine Greek * , Cyprian * , Doric * , Ionic * , Koinē * , Modern Greek
Indo-IranianIndoIran 11Dardic or Pisacha  Kafiri, Kashmiri, Khowar, Kohistani, RomaniRomani (Gypsy), Shina
Indic or Indo-Aryan 7  PaliPali* , PrakritPrakrit * , SanskritSanskrit * , Vedic *
Central Indic HindiHindi , HindustaniHindustani , UrduUrdu
East IndicAssamese, Bengali (Bangla), Bihari, Oriya
Northwest IndicPunjabi, Sindhi
PahariCentral Pahari, Eastern Pahari (Nepali), Western Pahari
South IndicMarathi (including major dialect Konkani), Sinhalese (Singhalese)
West IndicBhili, Gujarati, Rajasthani (many dialects)
Iranian 3  Avestan* , Old Persian *
East Iranian Baluchi, Khwarazmian* , Ossetic, Pamir dialects, Pashto (Afghan), Saka (Khotanese) * , Sogdian * , Yaghnobi
West Iranian Kurdish, Pahlavi (Middle Persian)* , Parthian * , PersianPerslang (Farsi), Tajiki
ItalicItalicla 3(Non-Romance)  Faliscan* , LatinLatinlan , Oscan * , Umbrian *
RomanceRomancel or Romanic 2Eastern Romance ItalianItalLan , Rhaeto-RomanicRhaetoRo , RomanianRomnilang , Sardinian
Western Romance CatalanCatalanLan , FrenchFrenchla , Ladino, PortuguesePortlang , Provençal, SpanishSpanlang
SlavicSlavicla or Slavonic 3East Slavic  Belarusian (White Russian), RussianRusslang , Ukrainian
South Slavic  BulgarianBulgarLan , Church SlavonicChurchSl* , Macedonian, Serbo-CroatianSerboCro , Slovenian
West Slavic  CzechCzechlan , Kashubian, Lusatian (Sorbian or Wendish), Polabian* , PolishPolishla , Slovak
Thraco-Illyrian   Albanian, Illyrian* , Thracian *
Thraco-Phrygian   ArmenianArmenLan , Grabar (Classical Armenian)* , Phrygian *
Tokharian (W China)   Tokharian A (Agnean)* , Tokharian B (Kuchean) *
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* Asterisk indicates a dead language.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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