New School University, in New York City; coeducational; chartered and opened 1919 as the New School for Social Research, a center for adult education, renamed 1997. Founded by Charles Beard, Thorstein Veblen, John Dewey, and others, it originally emphasized classes for adults and became known for programs in social science, the humanities, and public policy. Its curriculum now is dominated by diverse arts education programs. In 1933 the University in Exile was established for scholars fleeing totalitarianism in Europe; this became (1934) the graduate faculty of political and social science, the first degree-granting division of the university. A bachelor of arts program for continuing students was established in 1944. Other divisions of the university include The New School, for adult students; the four-year Eugene Lang College; the Parsons School of Design (est. 1896, merged with the New School 1970); the Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy; and the Mannes College of Music (est. 1916, merged 1989).