Philippine Independent Church, religious body that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1902 and rejected the spiritual authority of the pope. It is known popularly as the Aglipayan Church, after its founder Gregorio Aglipay. Initially it drew large numbers as a result of nationalist feelings, but later its membership dwindled significantly. Doctrinal disputes and strong factionalism developed. One group allied with American Unitarians and split into various parties. Another, a trinitarian group, moved toward the Episcopal Church, by which their ministers were ordained after 1948 and with which they were formally united in 1961. In 1965 the Philippine Independent Church joined the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht. (See also Old Catholics.)
See P. S. de Achutegui and M. A. Bernad, Religious Revolution in the Philippines (2 vol., 1960–66).