Albany (1, 3, 4 ôlˈbənē; 2 ôlˈbĕnˌē, ălbāˈnē) [key]. 1 Residential city (1990 pop. 16,327), Alameda co., W Calif., on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1908. The city has varied manufacturing; Tilden Regional Park is nearby.
2 City (1990 pop. 78,122), seat of Dougherty co., SW Ga., on the Flint River; inc. 1841. The industrial center of a pecan- and peanut-producing area, it engages in food processing, meatpacking, and cotton milling. Manufactures include concrete, printing and publishing, fertilizer, millwork and lumber, construction materials, and transportation equipment. In the city are Albany State Univ., Albany Naval Air Station, and a U.S. Marine Corps supply center. The Georgia Pecan Festival is held annually. Nearby are Chehaw State Park and the Radium Springs resort. Albany was the scene of 1960s civil-rights confrontations and was severely damaged by flooding in 1994.
3 City (1990 pop. 101,082), state capital and seat of Albany co., E N.Y., on the west bank of the Hudson River; inc. 1686. A deepwater port of entry, it handles much shipping, has major oil storage facilities, and is a transshipment point for turbines and generators. Though now primarily a government and service center, the city retains significant manufacturing, trucking, and warehousing functions. Manufactures include metal fabrication, machine tools, cardboard and paper products, clothing and textiles, chemicals, plastics, cable and wire rope, and petroleum products.
After a decline in manufacturing in the 1950s, the city undertook revitalization efforts including the Empire State Plaza, a complex of state administrative buildings, convention facilities, parks, and the state museum and state library. The plaza faces the capitol, built (1867–98) in the French château style. The city is the seat of the State Univ. of New York at Albany; the schools of pharmacy, law, and medicine of Union Univ.; the College of St. Rose; and the Albany Institute of History and Art. Among many old buildings are the Schuyler mansion (1762); Ten Broeck Mansion (1798); and Cherry Hill (1768), the home of Philip Van Rensselaer. An annual tulip festival is held.
In 1609, Henry Hudson visited the site, and four years later the Dutch built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post, on Castle Island. In 1624 several Walloon families began permanent settlement at the Dutch post of Fort Orange, renamed Albany after the English took control (1664). Albany was long important as a fur-trading center and was involved in the French and Indian Wars. In 1754 the Albany Congress met there, and in 1797 the state capital was moved to Albany from New York City. Albany's trade grew particularly after the opening of the Champlain and Erie canals in the 1820s.
4 City (1990 pop. 29,462), seat of Linn co., NW Oreg., on the Willamette River; inc. 1864. Many refractory metals are produced, including titanium, zirconium, and columbium. Other manufactures include food products, furniture, prefabricated homes, and construction materials. An annual world championship timber carnival is held there.