Burlington. 1 City (1990 pop. 27,208), seat of Des Moines co., SE Iowa, on four hills overlooking the Mississippi (spanned there by rail and highway bridges); inc. 1836. It is a farm, shipping, and manufacturing center with railroad shops and docks. The site was selected for a fort in 1805. A Native American village, Sho-quo-quon ("Flint Hills") was there. European settlement began in 1833. Burlington was the temporary capital of Wisconsin Territory (1837) and of Iowa Territory (1838–40). One of the oldest newspapers in the state, the Burlington Hawk-Eye, is still published. The city has several parks along the Mississippi.
2 Town (1990 pop. 23,302), Middlesex co., E Mass., a residential suburb of Boston; settled 1641, inc. 1799. Manufactures include electronic components, precision instruments, and computer and communications software. Its pre-Revolutionary meetinghouse, remodeled, still stands.
3 City (1990 pop. 9,835), Burlington co., W N.J., on the Delaware (bridged there to Bristol, Pa.) between Trenton and Camden, in a rich farm area; settled 1677 by Friends, inc. 1733. A shipping point for farm and dairy products, the city also manufactures metals, textiles, and clothing. Burlington grew mainly as a port. It was also on a Philadelphia–New York coach line, and railroad tracks were laid down Broad St. in 1834. The first colonial money was printed there in 1726, by Benjamin Franklin; the first newspaper in New Jersey in 1777. St. Mary's Church (built 1703) and the Friends' school (1792) still stand. The birthplaces of James Fenimore Cooper and of James Lawrence are preserved.
4 City (1990 pop. 39,498), Alamance co., N N.C., on the Haw River; settled c.1700, inc. 1866. Its plants manufacture plastics and paper, apparel, textiles, machinery, and computer equipment. In May, 1771, 2,000 colonial "Regulators" clashed with British troops c.5 mi (8 km) south of Burlington; the site is in Alamance Battleground State Park. A notable wildlife museum is in the city.
5 City (1990 pop. 39,127), seat of Chittenden co., NW Vt., on Lake Champlain; settled 1773, inc. 1865. The largest city in the state, it is a port and industrial and tourist center. Electronic and computer parts, furniture, machinery, and processed food are among its manufactures. Battery Park was the scene of an abortive British naval attack (Aug. 3, 1813) during the War of 1812. The city is the seat of the Univ. of Vermont and Champlain College; an aquarium and science center is there. A combination of college town and mill town, Burlington had socialist administrations in the 1980s and 90s and acquired a reputation for innovative urban policies.
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