Springfield. 1 City (1990 pop. 105,227), state capital and seat of Sangamon co., central Ill., on the Sangamon River; settled 1818, inc. as a city 1840. In a rich agricultural region (sorghum, corn, cattle, and dairying), it is a wholesale trade, retail, and distribution center. Its varied industries produce consumer goods, flour, transportation equipment, parking meters, building materials, machinery, and electrical and electronic products. There is also book publishing. Oil and natural-gas fields lie to the south. The city is the seat of Springfield College in Illinois, Benedictine University, and the Univ. of Illinois at Springfield. Nearby are New Salem Historic Site, Camp Butler National Cemetery, and Lake Springfield.
Abraham Lincoln, who was instrumental in having Springfield made the state capital in 1839, lived and practiced law there from 1837 to 1861. He is buried nearby, with his wife and three of their children, in a tomb and monument designed by L. G. Mead and dedicated in 1874. Lincoln's home is preserved as a national historic site. Other places of interest include the capitol (1867–87), built in the style of Renaissance architecture; the old capitol (1837), where Lincoln made his "House Divided" speech and which contains the state historical library; several Lincoln museums, including the Depot Museum, where Lincoln made his farewell address (1861), and that at the Lincoln presidential library; the governor's mansion (1853–57); the state art gallery; and the state fairgrounds. Vachel Lindsay was born in Springfield; his house is a museum.
2 Industrial city (1990 pop. 156,983), seat of Hampden co., SW Mass., on the Connecticut River; inc. 1641. A port of entry, the city has significant printing and publishing industries. Among its many manufactures are ordnance, chemicals, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment, paper and metallurgical goods, and clothing. The city is the seat of Springfield College, American International College, and Western New England College. Saint-Gaudens' Puritan is in Merrick Park. Also in the city are Forest Park (which has a zoo), the Basketball Hall of Fame, and several additional museums.
Springfield was settled (1636) by Puritans under William Pynchon, and was one of the scenes in Shays's Rebellion (1786–87) and a station on the Underground Railroad. The U.S. Armory, which operated there from 1794 to 1966, was famous for the development of the Springfield and Garand army rifles; it now contains an arms museum and is a national historic site (see National Parks and Monuments, table). Basketball was invented at what is now Springfield College in 1891 by James Naismith. The first American-made projection planetarium was designed and built (1937) by Frank Korkosz for the city's science museum, which also contains an aquarium.
3 City (1990 pop. 140,494), seat of Greene co., SW Mo., in a resort area of the Ozarks; inc. 1846. It is the industrial, trade, service, and shipping center of a rich agricultural area producing dairy goods, livestock, poultry, grains, and fruit. The city's manufactures include metal, wood, and paper products; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; foods; machinery; electronic goods; apparel; feeds; and artificial flowers. Springfield is the seat of Drury Univ., Southwest Missouri State Univ., Evangel Univ., Baptist Bible College, and Central Bible College. It is also the international headquarters of the Assemblies of God church. In the Civil War, Springfield was taken by Confederate forces after the battle (1861) of Wilson's Creek; nearby are the battlefield and a national cemetery. "Wild Bill"Hickok lived in the city.
4 City (1990 pop. 70,487), seat of Clark co., W central Ohio, on the Mad River; settled 1799, inc. as a city 1850. A manufacturing center in a rich farm area, it is especially known for its production of farm machinery and trucks. Other goods include are machinery, tools, and a variety of metal (iron and steel) products. The city grew with the building of the National Road (1838), the arrival of the railroads (mid-1800s), and the establishment of farm-machinery plants (late 1800s). Wittenberg Univ. is there. Nearby is George Rogers Clark Park.
5 City (1990 pop. 44,683), Lane co., W central Oregon, between the McKenzie and Willamette rivers; inc. 1885. Near the forested foothills of the Cascade Range, the city has important lumbering and forest-product industries. Berries, nuts, poultry, dairy products, nursery plants, smoked fish, and chemicals are also produced. The McKenzie River recreational area is nearby.
6 Uninc. town (1990 pop. 23,706), Fairfax co., NE Va., a suburb of Washington, D.C. Its manufactures include foods, paper and concrete products, transportation equipment, medical devices, machinery, computers, and furniture.