Arkhangelsk (ərkhänˈgĭlsk) [key] or Archangel ärkˈānˌjəl, city (1990 est. 418,000), NW European Russia, on the Northern Dvina near its mouth at the White Sea. Although icebound much of the year, it is a leading Russian port and can generally be made usable by icebreakers. Timber and wood products make up the bulk of the exports. The city has factories producing pulp and paper, turpentine, resin, cellulose, building materials, and prefabricated houses. Fishing and shipbuilding are also major industries. It is the terminus of both the Northern Sea Route and the Baltic-White Sea Canal, which was built by slave labor. Once the site of a Norse settlement, the city was founded (1584) as Novo-Kholmogory; it was renamed (1613) for the monastery of the Archangel Michael (which still stands). Arkhangelsk was Russia's principal port until the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703; it regained importance after the rail line to Moscow was completed in 1898. A supply port during World War I, Arkhangelsk was occupied from 1918 to 1920 by Allied forces (including Americans) and by the White Army; it served as their base for unsuccessful campaigns against the Bolsheviks. During World War II, U.S. and British shipments landed at Arkhangelsk. The city has a maritime school (1771), a regional museum (1859), and institutes of forestry and medicine.
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