Bandung or Bandoeng (both: bänˈdōng) [key], city (1990 pop. 2,058,122), capital of Java Barat prov., W Java, Indonesia, near the Tangkuban Prahu volcano. Formerly the administrative and military headquarters of the Netherlands East Indies, it is the third largest city in Indonesia, an industrial hub, a famous educational and cultural center, and a tourist resort known for its cool, healthful climate. Founded by the Dutch in 1810, Bandung became important with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th cent. Bandung is a textile center and the site of the country's quinine industry, which uses the cinchona grown on nearby plantations. Other manufactures include ceramics, chemicals, rubber products, aircraft, and machinery. The city is the seat of a textile institute, the Pasteur Institute, a technological institute, several universities, and a nuclear research center. Nearby is the Malabar radio station, one of the most powerful in SE Asia. The Bandung Conference of African and Asian nations, which ultimately led to the establishment of the Nonaligned Movement, was held there in 1955.