Cateau, Le (lə kätōˈ) [key] or Le Cateau-Cambrésis lə kätōˈ-käNbrāzēˈ, town (1993 est. pop. 7,789), Nord dept., N France, in French Flanders. It has textile, metallurgical, and ceramic industries. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) returned the last English foothold on the continent to France. Le Cateau was the scene of much fighting in World War I. A museum contains much of the work of Matisse, who was born there.