Chihuahua, city (1990 pop. 516,153), capital of Chihuahua state, N Mexico. It lies in a valley almost encircled by hills. Chihuahua is the commercial and processing center of a vast central area. Agriculture, livestock, and mining are the economic mainstays of the surrounding region. The revolutionist Hidalgo y Costilla was executed in the city in 1811. Chihuahua was occupied briefly by U.S. forces in 1846 during the Mexican War and served as the headquarters of Benito Juárez until French troops took it in 1865. It has many American residents. There are several prime examples of 18th-century colonial architecture, including the aqueduct.