Ciudad Real (thyōħäħˈ rāälˈ) [key], city (1990 pop. 58,170), capital of Ciudad Real prov., central Spain, in Castile–La Mancha, on a fertile plain between the Jabalón and Guadiana rivers. It is an agricultural marketplace, with farm-related industries. Ciudad Real was founded by Alfonso X of Castile in the 13th cent.; during the Peninsular War, the French defeated (1809) the Spanish in a battle nearby. The city preserves some of its medieval flavor; it has several notable Gothic churches.