Dachau (däˈkhou) [key], city, Bavaria, S Germany, on the Amper River; chartered in 1391. It is a rail junction and its industries include the production of paper, cardboard, electrical equipment, and textiles. There is a 16th-century castle. Nearby was (1933–45) the first Nazi concentration camp, which today has a number of memorials and a museum. Records indicate that at least 32,000 inmates died at the Dachau concentration camp, and numberless more were transported to extermination camps in Poland.