Dublin, county (1991 pop. 1,025,304, including the city of Dublin), 327 sq mi (847 sq km), E central Republic of Ireland, on the Irish Sea. The region is dominated by Dublin, which is the county seat and capital of the Republic. The area is low-lying in the north and center, rising to the Wicklow Mts. in the south. The chief river is the Liffey, which bisects the city of Dublin and empties into Dublin Bay. Two islands, Lambay and Ireland's Eye, are off the coast. The rural area, upon which the city has increasingly encroached, is devoted to dairy farming and the raising of wheat, barley, and potatoes. Cattle are also grazed; fishing is pursued along the coast. Industries include chocolate and cement in the west, and the town of Balbriggan is noted for its hosiery manufacture. The National Botanic Gardens are in Glasnevin, just outside Dublin. Organized as a county by King John of England in the early 13th cent., Dublin, heart of the English Pale, was strongly guarded by castles along its boundaries.