Foggia (fôdˈjä) [key], city (1991 pop. 156,268), capital of Foggia prov., in Apulia, S Italy. It is a transportation and industrial center and the main wheat market of S Italy. It is a highly diversified secondary industrial center. It has long been the custom to store grain in huge holes dug in the squares of the city. An earthquake in 1731 destroyed much of Foggia. The city was a favorite residence of Emperor Frederick II, who built (13th cent.) a fortified castle there (since greatly reconstructed).