Fushun (fōˈshōnˈ) [key], city (1994 est. pop. 1,245,700), NE Liaoning prov., China, in a highly industrialized area. It is connected by rail with nearby Shenyang (Mukden) and with Dalian. Fushun's enormous open-pit coal mine, which has been in operation since about the 12th cent., is now highly mechanized. Oil shale deposits, also mined there, are processed in the Fushun oil refineries. Fushun also has a major aluminum-reduction plant and factories making automobiles, machinery, chemicals, cement, and rubber. The city was developed by Russia until 1905 and by Japan until 1945.