Ganghwa, Kanghwa, or Kanghoa (all: gängˈhwäˈ) [key], administrative district (1995 pop. 64,746), 163 sq mi (422 sq km), of Incheon (Inchon) city, consisting of 29 islands in the Yellow Sea (or West Sea) off NW South Korea. Farming, especially ginseng and rice, and fishing are important occupations. The largest island, also called Ganghwa, was briefly the site of the Korean capital in the 13th cent. It was early fortified as an outer defense for Seoul and was stormed by the French in 1866 and by the Americans in 1871.
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