Gwalior (gwäˈlēôr) [key], city and former princely state, central India. Part of Madhya Pradesh state since 1956, the territory of Gwalior formerly consisted of one large territory and several exclaves. The state was formed in the mid-18th cent. by Ranoji Sindhia, a Maratha chief who became independent of the peshwa (hereditary Maratha prime minister). Forces of Gwalior overran much of central India until they were checked by the British in the early 19th cent., and the state was temporarily annexed to the British domain. It was restored to the Sindhias in 1886. When India became independent in 1947, Gwalior and several other princely states were combined into the state of Madhya Bharat. In 1956, Madhya Bharat merged with Madhya Pradesh. The city of Gwalior (1991 pop. 717,780) was the capital of Gwalior state. It lies at the foot of Gwalior fort, a stronghold on the Rock of Gwalior, a plateau 2 mi (3.2 km) long and 300 ft (91 m) high. Within the battlemented walls of the fort are elaborately carved palaces and temples. Huge Jain reliefs are carved in the cliffs of the Rock of Gwalior. Among the city's manufactures are textiles, carpets, glass, matches, rayon, cigarettes, porcelain ware, leather and plastic goods, and processed food. There are several colleges, a zoological garden, and an industrial-research laboratory.