Hradec Králové (hräˈdĕts kräˈlôvā) [key], Ger. Königgrätz, city (1991 pop. 99,917), N central Czech Republic, in Bohemia, on the Elbe (Labe) River. It is an industrial center known for the manufacture of musical instruments. Founded in the 10th cent., it was a leading town of medieval Bohemia. It suffered heavily in the Hussite and Thirty Years wars. The town became a Roman Catholic bishopric in 1653. The city has a 14th-century Gothic cathedral, a 14th-century town hall, a 17th-century baroque palace, and two huge marketplaces from medieval times. There is also a medical institute (founded 1946). The battle of Sadová (1866), also called the battle of Königgrätz, was fought in the vicinity.