A bibliography of the early period and the barbarian invasions is listed under Rome. For the medieval period, see D. P. Waley, The Italian City-Republics (1969); J. K. Hyde, Society and Politics in Medieval Italy (1973); C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400–1000 (1981). For the Renaissance, see bibliography under Renaissance. For the modern period, see B. King, A History of Italian Unity (2 vol., 1924, repr. 1967); D. M. Smith, Italy (1959, repr. 1969); C. Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870–1925 (1967); S. J. Woolf, A History of Italy, 1700–1860 (1979); R. J. B. Bosworth, Italy: The Least of the Great Powers (1980) and Mussolini's Italy (2006); H. Hearder, Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento (1983); M. Clark, Modern Italy, 1871–1982 (1984); V. S. Pisano, The Dynamics of Subversion and Violence in Contemporary Italy (1987); P. Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–88 (1988) and Italy and Its Discontents: Family, Civil Society, State, 1980–2000 (2003); R. S. Cunsolo, Modern Italian Nationalism (1989); S. Tarrow, Democracy and Disorder: Protest and Politics in Italy, 1965–75 (1989); A. Stille, Excellent Cadavers: The Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic (1995); C. Duggan, The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy since 1796 (2008); D. Gilmour, The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples (2011).