Kayseri (kĪˈsĕrēˌ) [key], city (1990 pop. 416,276), capital of Kayseri prov., central Turkey, at the foot of Mt. Erciyas. It is an important commercial center and has textile mills, sugar refineries, and cement factories. Carpets are made there. The ancient Caesarea Mazaca, it was taken by the Seljuk Turks in the mid-11th cent., briefly held (1097) by the Crusaders, and captured (1243) by the Mongols. The city was occupied by the Mamluks of Egypt in 1419. Sultan Selim I incorporated Kayseri into the Ottoman Empire in 1515. The city has numerous historical remains. Nearby is Kültepe (Kanesh), an archaeological site that dates back to the 3d millennium B.C.