See W. E. Henthorn, A History of Korea (1972); R. A. Scalapino and C.-S. Lee, Communism in Korea (2 vol., 1973); I. L. Bird, Korea and Her Neighbors (2 vol., 1986); K.-B. Lee, A New History of Korea (tr. 1988); J. Woo, Race to the Swift: State and Finance in Korean Industrialization (1991); M. Deuchler, The Confucian Transformation of Korea (1992); B. Cumings, Korea's Place in the Sun (1997); P. H. Lee et al., ed. Sources of Korean Tradition (2 vol., 1997–2000); D. Oberdorfer, The Two Koreas (1997); N. Eberstadt, The End of North Korea (1999); J. B. Duncan, The Origins of the Choson Dynasty (2000); B. Demick, Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea (2009); R. Hassig and K. Oh, The Hidden People of North Korea: Everyday Life in the Hermit Kingdom (2009); B. R. Myers, The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves—and Why It Matters (2010); V. Cha, The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future (2012); J. Kim, A History of Korea (2012).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.