Kurgan (kōrgänˈ) [key], city (1989 pop. 356,000), capital of Kurgan region, W Siberian Russia, on the Tobol River. Kurgan is the important junction of the western branches of the Trans-Siberian RR. Its factories produce agricultural and road-building equipment, machine tools, and food products. Kurgan became a town in the 17th cent. There are many ancient burial mounds (Turkic Kurgan ) in the area.