Kyzyl or Kizil (both: kĭzĭlˈ) [key], city (1989 pop. 85,000), capital of Tuva Republic, S Siberian Russia, on the Yenisei River. It services motor transport and has brickyards, sawmills, furniture factories, and food-processing plants. Founded in 1914, the city was called Belotsarsk until 1917 and Khem-Beldyr until 1926. It has a Tuvan language, history, and literature research institute (founded in 1953) and a Buddhist temple complex.