Liaoyang (lyouˈyängˈ) [key], city (1994 est. pop. 541,300), E Liaoning prov., China, on a tributary of the Hun River. It is an industrial city in the great Shenyang urban complex, The manufacture of chemicals is its major industry; other manufacturing includes machinery, textiles, and paper. It has evolved into a supply center for neighboring Anshan, providing it with food and other support services. One of the oldest cities of Manchuria, Liaoyang contains several Buddhist temples built in the 11th cent. In the Russo-Japanese War it was the site of a battle (Aug. 23–Sept. 3, 1904) in which the Russians were forced to retreat.