Linlithgow, town (1991 pop. 9,524), West Lothian, central Scotland. Manufactures include paper, whiskey, and computers. Linlithgow Palace, now a ruin, was a seat of Stuart kings and the birthplace of James V and Mary Queen of Scots. Begun in the 15th cent. by James I, it was occupied (1651–59) by Oliver Cromwell and his forces, and burned in 1746. The 1st earl of Murray, regent of Scotland, was murdered there in 1570.