Livorno (lē vôrˈnô) [key], Brit. Leghorn, city (1991 pop. 167,512), capital of Livorno prov., Tuscany, central Italy, on the Ligurian Sea and on the Aurelian Way. It is a busy commercial, industrial, and tourist center and is one of the most important ports of Italy. Manufactures include refined petroleum, iron, steel, aluminum, copper, metal minerals, chemicals, ships, vehicles, machinery, and electrical equipment. The city has major shipyards and a fishing industry. A fortified castle in the Middle Ages, Livorno was developed (16th cent.) into a flourishing city by the Medici. In 1590, Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany, made it a free port and opened it to all religious and political refugees. The city was badly damaged in World War II. Points of interest include the cathedral (16th cent., restored after 1945) and the remains of the 17th-century city wall. The Italian naval academy is there.