Lomonosov (ləmənôˈsəf) [key], formerly Oranienbaum oräˈnyənboum, city (1989 pop. 42,000), NW European Russia, on the Gulf of Finland. It is a rail terminus and summer resort and has foundries and brick factories. In Lomonosov are a palace built (1710–25) by Peter I and the "Chinese Palace," built (1762–68) by Catherine the Great. The city was part of the Soviet bridgehead on the Gulf of Finland during the German siege of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) in World War II. It was renamed in 1948 in memory of scientist, poet, and glassmaker M. V. Lomonosov.