Ludhiana (lŏdēäˈnə) [key], city (1991 pop. 1,042,740), Punjab state, NW India. Founded in the late 15th cent., it lies on the old Grand Trunk Road, the great thoroughfare connecting Delhi with Amritsar. Hosiery, cotton textiles, bicycle parts, and sewing machines are the important manufactures. Violence between Sikhs and Hindus has crippled the city's economic and social development.