Luoyang or Loyang (both: lô-yäng) [key], city (1994 est. pop. 863,300), NW Henan prov., China, on the Luo River. The city is the hub of several highways and is located on the Longhai RR. A new industrial center with a variety of heavy and light industries, it has grown about fourfold since 1949. Luoyang, a major Chinese cultural center, was the capital of several ancient dynasties, particularly that of the Eastern Chou kingdom (770–256 B.C.) and the T'ang dynasty (A.D. 618–906). Under the Chou it was the seat of several schools of philosophy. The nearby Longmen grottoes, embellished in the 6th cent. A.D., contain colossal carvings of Buddha. Luoyang was formerly called Henanfu or Honanfu.