Madura or Madoera (both: mädŏˈrä) [key], island (1990 pop. 3,015,124), c.1,760 sq mi (4,560 sq km), Indonesia, near the northeast coast of Java, from which it is separated by Madura Strait. The island and its offshore islets are part of the province of East Java. Pamekasan is the capital; Sumenep is a major town. Principal products are salt, obtained from pans along the coast, and fish. Cattle are extensively raised, and bull races are held annually. The island is densely populated. The generally chalky soil limits agriculture, and much food has to be imported. From the 11th to the 18th cent., Madura was dominated by the rulers of Java. It was made a part of Indonesia in 1949.