Manchukuo (mănchōˈkwō) [key], former country, comprising the three provinces of NE China, traditionally called Manchuria. The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and founded Manchukuo in 1932. Changchun, the capital, was renamed Xinjing [Chinese, = new capital]. Pu Yi, last of the Manchu (Ch'ing) dynasty of China, ruled as regent and emperor. Manchukuo, ostensibly an independent Manchu state, was a Japanese puppet-state. Of the major countries only Japan, Italy, and Germany extended diplomatic recognition; few foreigners were allowed into Manchukuo. The Japanese military kept strict control of the administration and fought a continuing guerrilla war with native resistance groups. To develop Manchukuo as a war base, the Japanese greatly expanded industry and railroads. After World War II, Chinese sovereignty was reasserted over the area.