Manzhouli or Manchouli (both: mänˈjōˈlēˈ) [key], city (1994 est. pop. 129,100), NE Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China, on the Russian border. Heavy industry is the most important economic activity; main industries include coal mining and food processing. Manzhouli developed after the construction (1903) of the Chinese Eastern RR and was important as a customs station; until recent times virtually all trade between China and Russia passed through there; trade with Russia remains important to the economy. Many Russian émigrés settled in the city after the Bolshevik revolution. It was known as Lubin from 1913 until 1949.