Mariupol (märˌēōˈpəl) [key], formerly Zhdanov zhdänˈəf, city (1989 pop. 520,000), SE Ukraine, on the Sea of Azov and at the mouth of the Kalmius River. A seaport and railroad terminus, Mariupol is also an iron and steel center with machine plants, chemical works, and shipyards. Coal, salt, and grain are the chief exports. Founded in 1779 by Crimean Greeks, Mariupol is on the site of an ancient Slavic settlement. It was called Zhdanov from 1948 to 1992.