Maykop (mĪkôpˈ) [key], city (1989 pop. 149,000), capital of Adygey Republic, Krasnodar Territory, S European Russia, at the foot of the Greater Caucasus and on the Belaya River. It has machinery, lumber, and food-processing industries. Nearby are the important Maykop oil fields, discovered in 1900–1901 and linked by pipeline with the refineries at Krasnodar and the Black Sea port of Tuapse. Maykop was founded in 1857 as a Russian fortress. It was captured by German troops in 1942 and retaken by Soviet forces in 1943. The name of the city also appears as Maikop. It has an institute for the study of Adygey culture, language, and history.