Miskolc (mĭshˈkôlts) [key], city (1991 est. pop 194,000), NE Hungary, on the Sajó River. Hungary's second largest city and a major industrial center, Miskolc has large iron and steel mills, lime and cement works, and a large food processing plant. The region's numerous limestone caves are used as cellars by local winemakers. Miskolc also has an important trade in metal products and agricultural goods. The city is the seat of a Protestant bishopric. An old settlement, Miskolc was granted the status of a free city in the 15th cent. Frequent invasions (by Mongols in the 13th cent., Turks in the 16th and 17th cent., and German imperial forces in the 17th and 18th cent.) marked the city's history. Industrialization began in the second half of the 19th cent. Present-day landmarks include the Avas Reformed Church (15th cent.), the remains of a 13th-century castle, and a museum containing Scythian art. The city also has a law school and a technical university.