Montmartre (môNmärˈtrə) [key] [Fr., = hill of the martyrs], hill in Paris, on the right bank of the Seine River. The highest point of Paris, it is topped by the famous Church of Sacré-Cœur. Parts of the ancient quarter on its slopes were long a favorite residence of the bohemian world. Until the 20th cent. Montmartre retained a rural look and provided material for Van Gogh, Pissarro, Utrillo, and other artists. Montmartre is also famed for its nightlife; among its many nightclubs is the Moulin Rouge. The cemetery of Montmartre contains the tombs of Stendhal, Renan, Heine, Berlioz, and Alfred de Vigny. The town of Montmartre was annexed to Paris in 1860. The hill, a natural fortress, played a military role during the Paris Commune (1871) and other periods.
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