IntroductionMoravia (mərāˈvēə, mō–) [key], Czech Morava, Ger. Mähren, region in the E Czech Republic. The region is bordered on the W by Bohemia, on the E by the Little and White Carpathian Mts., which divide it from Slovakia, and on the N by the Sudetes Mts., which separate it from Silesia and which include the Moravian Gate, a historically strategic north-south route. Central Moravia is a valley, opening in the S on Austria and drained by the Morava River and its tributaries. A fertile agricultural area that encompasses the Haná region (noted both for farming and horse breeding), Moravia has important iron and steel industries as well as diverse light industries. Diverse mineral resources, such as lignite, coal, oil, iron, copper, silver, and lead, spurred industrialization in the 20th cent. Major cities include Brno, the former Moravian capital and a leading textile center; Zlín, famous for its shoe industry; Ostrava, a coal-mining center with a large iron and steel industry; and Olomouc.
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