Dairying in New Brunswick thrives on fine pasturage; the major crops are potatoes, hay, clover, oats, berries, and fruit. A careful conservation program maintains a supply of second-growth hardwoods and softwoods; forests cover about 90% of the total area, and lumbering is New Brunswick's most important industry. Great quantities of pulpwood and paper are produced.
Manufacturing has greatly expanded since World War II; in addition to wood, pulp, and paper, products include food and beverages, boats and ships, chemicals, refined oil, and shoes. Industry is generally run by hydroelectric power, although the province has coal reserves. There is a nuclear reactor at Point Lepreau. Mining is important, with zinc, silver, and lead the most important minerals. Other minerals include copper, bismuth, cadmium, gold, antimony, potash, oil, and natural gas.
New Brunswick's fisheries are among the most valuable in Canada, with a variety of freshwater and saltwater fish (salmon, herring, and sardines) as well as shellfish (lobsters, oysters, and clams). Trade flows in and out of the ports of St. John and Moncton, facilitated by railroad connections eastward to Nova Scotia and westward to Quebec. Tourism, one of New Brunswick's most important industries, is spurred by Acadian cultural events and by such outdoor attractions as Fundy National Park. The only officially bilingual province, New Brunswick has also developed an important telecommunications industry in recent years.
The province's four universities are Mount Allison Univ., at Sackville; St. Thomas Univ., at Fredericton; the Univ. de Moncton, a major francophone institution at Moncton; and the Univ. of New Brunswick, at Fredericton and Saint John.