New Hanover or Lavongai (lävôngˈĪ) [key], volcanic island, c.460 sq mi (1,190 sq km), in the Bismarck Archipelago, part of Papua New Guinea. New Hanover is mountainous and densely forested. Coconuts, fishing, and timber are economically important. The island is known for long canoes, capable of holding 30 people. Germany, which held the island from 1884 until World War I, called it Neu Hannover.