North Holland, Dutch Noordholland nōrtˌhôˈlänt, province (1994 pop. 2,457,300), c.1,080 sq mi (2,800 sq km), NW Netherlands, a peninsula between the North Sea in the west and the Markermeer and IJsselmeer in the east. The province includes several of the West Frisian islands. Haarlem is the capital; other cities include Amsterdam, Hilversum, IJmuiden, Den Helder, and Zaandam. North Holland largely comprises low-lying fenland. It is drained by numerous small rivers and canals and is protected by dikes. There are many picturesque drawbridges, windmills, and tulip fields. Manufacturing is central to the province's economy. Agriculture, cattle raising, flower growing, cheese production, fishing, and foreign trade are also important sources of revenue. For the history of the province, see Holland.
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