Palestrina (pälāstrēˈnä) [key], town (1991 pop. 15,802), in Latium, central Italy. It is an agricultural market. It is located on the site of Praeneste, a town founded by c.800 B.C. and later destroyed (and rebuilt) by the Romans in the 1st cent. B.C. Of note are the ruins of a temple of Fortuna (8th cent. B.C.), celebrated for its oracles, and a 12th-century cathedral. The composer Palestrina was born there (c.1525).