Petropavl (pyĕˌtrəpäˈvəl) [key] or Petropavlovsk pyĕˌtrəpävˈləfsk, city (1993 est. pop. 248,000), N Kazakhstan, on the Ishim (Esil) River and at the junction of the Trans-Kazakhstan and Trans-Siberian RR. Small motors, agricultural machinery, leather, felt, and foodstuffs are produced in the city. On the caravan route between Turkistan and W China, Petropavl was founded as a fort in 1752 and became a center for trade between Russia and the central Asian kingdoms. Its industrial development began in the late 19th cent. and intensified during and following World War II.