Petrópolis (pətrôˈpŏlēs) [key], city (1996 pop. 267,704), Rio de Janeiro state, SE Brazil, picturesquely situated in hills just N of Rio de Janeiro. It is a fashionable resort, with a healthful climate, beautiful wooded estates, flower gardens, and tree-lined avenues. There are also industries producing textiles, coffee, and cereals. It was colonized by Bavarian immigrants in 1845 and soon afterward became the summer residence of the emperor Dom Pedro II, for whom the city is named. Successive presidents made it the unofficial summer capital of Brazil. Among its many fine buildings are a Gothic cathedral and the old imperial palace, which is now a museum containing possessions of Portuguese and Brazilian royalty. Petrópolis has a university.