Rzeszów (zhĕˈshōf) [key], city (1992 est. pop. 156,000), capital of Podkarpackie prov., SE Poland. It is a railway junction and an important industrial center, whose major industries produce metals, rolling stock, machinery, textiles, and foodstuffs. An old commercial settlement, Rzeszów was chartered c.1340. Casimir the Great of Poland later awarded the city to a nobleman in return for military service during Mongol raids. Rzeszów passed to Austria in 1772; it reverted to Poland in 1919. Its many historic buildings include a 17th-century castle and an 18th-century town hall. It also has two colleges and many cultural facilities.