Santiago de los Caballeros (säntyäˈgō dā lōs käbäyāˈrōs) [key], city (1993 pop. 364,859), N Dominican Republic, on the Yaque del Norte River. The second most important city in the country, it is a rail and road junction in the center of the fertile region known as the Cibao lowland. The region produces subsistence crops, sugarcane, tobacco, coffee, and cotton. Tobacco products and some light manufacturing are the dominant economic activities. Santiago is the commercial center and distribution point for the most densely populated part of the country. It was founded in 1504 and in 1844 was the site of a decisive battle in the Dominican Republic's war of independence.